Influence of Stress on Large Strain Behavior in Sustainable Lead-Free Actuator Materials

Novel lead-free materials have displayed unipolar strains larger than that of current lead-containing materials, which is very promising for actuator applications such as nano-positioning and diesel fuel injection systems. The origin of this exceptional behavior has been found to be an electric field-induced transformation from a macroscopic nonpolar (ergodic relaxor) to a macroscopic polar (ferroelectric) order. Due to the instability of the transformation, a reverse polar-nonpolar transformation is found with the removal of the electric field. This allows, essentially, for the poling strain to be re-harnessed with each electric field cycle. Seeds of ferroelectric material can be included in the nonpolar matrix to reduce the nucleation energy required to generate this transition. Numerous applications, however, push ferroelectric materials to more extreme loading conditions, which include the simultaneous application of electric field, stress, and temperature. The primary aim of this proposal is to understand the high temperature nonlinear constitutive behavior of lead- free nonpolar↔polar transforming materials through the measurement of large field electrical properties as a function of applied stress and temperature.

Project Publications
NH Khansur, C Groh, W Jo, C Reinhard, JA Kimpton, KG Webber, and JE Daniels, “Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic composite approach,” Journal of Applied Physics, 115(12), (2014)

Z Wang, KG Webber, JM Hudspeth, M Hinterstein, and JE Daniels, “Electric-field-induced paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO3”, Applied Physics Letters, 105(16), 161903 (2014)

HI Humburg, M Acosta, W Jo, KG Webber, and J Rödel, “Stress-dependent electromechanical properties of doped (Ba1-xCax)(ZryTi1-y)O3”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 35(4), 1209-1217 (2015)

J Rödel, KG Webber, R Dittmer, W Jo, M Kimura, and D Damjanovic, “Feature Article – Transferring lead-free piezoelectric ceramics into application”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 35(6), 1659–1681 (2015)

A Ayrikyan, M Acosta, V Rojas, L Molina-Luna, J Koruza, and KG Webber, “Enhancing Electromechanical Properties of Lead-Free Ferroelectrics with Bilayer Ceramic/Ceramic Composites”, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 62(6), 997 – 1006 (2015)

R Wang, K Wang, F Yao, J Li, FH Schader, KG Webber, W Jo, and J Rödel, “Temperature stability of niobate lead-free piezoelectric ceramics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 98(7), 2177–2182 (2015)

Y Ehara, N Novak, S Yasui, M Itoh, KG Webber, “Electric-field-temperature phase diagram of Mn-doped Bi0.5(Na0.9K0.1)0.5TiO3 ceramics”, Applied Physics Letters, 107 (2015)

M Deluca, G Picht, MJ Hoffmann, A Rechtenbach, J Töpfer, FH Schader, and KG Webber, “Chemical and Structural Effects on the High-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of (1-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3xBaTiO3”, Journal of Applied Physics, 117(13), 134110 (2015)

FH Schader, M Morozov, ET Wefring, T Grande, and KG Webber, “Mechanical stability of piezoelectric properties in ferroelectric perovskites”, Journal of Applied Physics, 117(19), 194101 (2015)

H Zhang, C Groh, Q Zhang, W Jo, KG Webber, and J Rödel, “Giant-Strain Relaxor/Ferroelectric Composite Piezoceramics”, Advanced Electronic Materials, 1(5), 1500018 (2015)

M Acosta, LA Schmitt, L Molina-Luna, MC Scherrer, M Brilz, KG Webber, M Deluca, H-J Kleebe, J Rödel, and W Donner, “Feature Article – Core–Shell Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics: Current Status and Advanced Characterization of the Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–SrTiO3 System”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society , 98 (11), 3405-3422 (2015)

MI Morozov, M-A Einarsrud, JR Tolchard, P Geiger, KG Webber, D Damjanovic, and T Grande, “Ferroelectric and ferroelastic properties of soft and hard tetragonal and rhombohedral PZT”, Journal of Applied Physics, 118(16), 164104 (2015)

NH Khansur, T Rojac, D Damjanovic, C Reinhard, KG Webber, JA Kimpton, JE Daniels, “Electric-field-induced Domain Switching and Domain Texture Relaxations in Bulk Bismuth Ferrite”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 98(12), 3884–3890 (2015)

Y Ehara, N Novak, S Yasui, M Itoh and KG Webber, “Electric-field-temperature phase diagram of Mn-doped Bi0.5(Na0.9K0.1)0.5TiO3 ceramics”, Applied Physics Letters, 107(26), 262903 (2015)

ET Wefring, FH Schader, KG Webber, MA Einarsrud and T Grande, “Electrical conductivity and ferroelastic properties of Ti-substituted solid solutions (1-x)BiFeO3x Bi0.5K0.5TiO3”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 36(3), 497-506 (2016)

F Schader, Z Wang, M Hinterstein, JE Daniels, KGWebber, “Stress-modulated relaxor-to-ferroelectric transition in lead-free (Na1/2Bi1/2) TiO3-BaTiO3 ferroelectrics”, Physical Review B, 93 (2016)

Y Ehara, N Novak, A Ayrikyan, PT Geiger, and KG Webber, “Phase transformation induced by electric field and mechanical stress in Mn-doped Bi0.5(Na,K)0.5TiO3 ceramics”, Journal of Applied Physics, 120(17), 174103 (2016)

Y Huan, X Wang, J Koruza, K Wang, KG Webber, Y Hao, L Li, “Inverted electro-mechanical behaviour induced by the irreversible domain configuration transformation in (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics”, Scientific Reports, 6 (2016)

FH Schader, GA Rossetti, Jr., J Luo, and KG Webber, “Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Properties of <001>C Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Single Crystals Under Combined Thermal and Mechanical Loading”, Acta Materialia, 126, 174-181 (2017)

FH Schader, N Khakpash, GA Rossetti, Jr, and KG Webber, “Phase transitions in BaTiO3 under uniaxial compressive stress: Experiments and phenomenological analysis”, Journal of Applied Physics, 121(6), 064109 (2017)

K Wang, F-Z Yao, J Koruza, L-Q Cheng, FH Schader, M-H Zhang, J Rödel, J-F Li, and KG Webber, “Electromechanical properties of CaZrO3 modified (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoceramics under uniaxial stress conditions”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 100(5), 2116–2122 (2017)

D Chen, A Ayrikyan, KG Webber, and M Kamlah, “Time-dependent electromechanical response of 0.93(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 lead-free piezoceramic under constant electric field”, Journal of Applied Physics, 121(11), 114106 (2017)

A Ayrikyan, F Weyland, S Steiner, M Duerrschnabel, L Molina-Luna, J Koruza, and KG Webber, “Multilayer lead‐free piezoceramic composites: Influence of co‐firing on microstructure and electromechanical behavior”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 100(8), 3673-3683 (2017)

M Vögler, N Novak, FH Schader, J Rödel, “Temperature-dependent volume fraction of polar nanoregions in lead-free (1-x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBaTiO3 ceramics”, Physical Review B, 95 (2017)

M Hagiwara, Y Ehara, N Novak, NH Khansur, A Ayrikyan, KG Webber, and S Fujihara, “Relaxor-ferroelectric crossover in (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3: Origin of the spontaneous phase transition and the effect of an applied external field”, Physical Review B, 96(1), 014103 (2017)

N Khansur, J Glaum, O Clemens, H Zhang, JE Daniels, and KG Webber, “Uniaxial compressive stress and temperature dependent mechanical behavior of (1-x)BiFeO3xBaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics ”, Ceramics International, 43(12), 9092–9098 (2017)

A Ayrikyan, A Kastner, NH Khansur, S Yasui, M Itoh, and KG Webber, “Lead-Free Multilayer Piezoceramic Composites: Effect of Cosintering on Electromechanical Properties”, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 64(7), 1127-1134 (2017)

KG Webber, M Vögler, NH Khansur, B Kaeswurm, JE Daniels, and FH Schader, Review Article: “Mechanical and Fracture Behavior of Perovskite Lead-Free Ferroelectrics”, Smart Materials and Structures, 26, 063001 (2017)

T Frömling, S Steiner, A Ayrikyan, D Bremecker, M Dürrschnabel, L Molina-Luna, H-J Kleebe, H Hutter, KG Webber, and M Acosta, “Designing properties of (Na1/2Bix)TiO3-based materials through A-site non-stoichiometry”, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 6, 738-744 (2018)

B Kaeswurm, V Segouin, L Daniel, and KG Webber, “The Anhysteretic Polarisation of Ferroelectrics”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 51, 075305 (2018)

B Kaeswurm, FH Schader, and KG Webber, “Ferroelectric, ferroelastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of lead zirconate titanate from –150 °C to 350 °C”, Ceramics International, 44(2), 2358-2363 (2018)